Fire-rated doors, also known as fire doors, are specially designed to withstand fires. A fire door is a type of door designed to survive prolonged direct fire exposure while preventing the fire from spreading to the other side of the door. In case a fire breaks out, these doors will survive longer than even the best ordinary doors. Fire doors help to contain the fire and keep it away from the building or property’s escape route.
Requirements for fire doors are different depending on your country and region. In order for fire doors to be effective, they must be:
- Made of the right materials and hardware;
- Placed strategically (in accordance with the requirements in the region);
- And installed properly.
In this complete guide, we will discuss what fire doors are, how they work, and whether or not you need one.
Let’s get started!
The Anatomy of Fire Doors
1. The Fire Rating Label
When looking for a fire-rated door, the first thing you need to look for is the fire rating label. This label indicates the fire rating of the door and which certifying body granted that rating. This permanent label is typically found on the hinge side of both the door and the door frame, hidden from view.
2. A Fire-Resistant Door
The fire-rated door itself can be made of wood and steel. Of these two materials, steel doors tend to have higher fire ratings because steel is non-combustible and will not feed the fire, under any circumstance.
As for wooden fire-rated doors, these are typically equipped with a gypsum core. A gypsum core is a soft mineral that is not flammable and is able to resist heat. However, a gypsum board can also be used with steel hollow doors.
Aside from gypsum, vermiculite boards can also be used in the design of fire doors because vermiculite is a well-known fire retardant.
3. Fire Resistant Glass and Seals
Some fire doors may also have vision panels with fire-rated glass. However, this is typically reduced or not included in the making of doors that have higher fire ratings.
The edges of a fire door must also have proper threshold seals, typically made of intumescent strips so that in case of a fire, the smoke will be contained effectively.
4. A Fire-Resistant Door Frame
Steel is non-combustible and non-flammable, so it’s no surprise that this is the most common material used in constructing fire-resistant door frames for doors that have a fire rating of 20 minutes or higher.
5. Fire-Resistant Hardware
During a fire, it is important that the fire-rated door be closed. Otherwise, it cannot stop or slow down the spread of fire and smoke. This is why all fire doors must be fitted with fire-resistant self-closing and self-latching hardware.
Along with a self-closing mechanism, fire doors also need steel ball-bearing hinges because these are more durable than standard hinges.
Understanding Ratings on Fire Doors
On fire rating labels, you may notice a number of minutes or a span of hours. This is the fire endurance rating. This is given by the certifying body after subjecting the door to extreme temperatures of up to 1925 degrees Fahrenheit.
The time is then recorded up to when the door remained intact in its frame. This is measured in intervals of 20, 45, 60, 90, or 180 minutes. Alternatively, some labels show hours instead of minutes.
How Fire Doors Help During a Fire
Let’s face it. No door can be 100% fireproof. In some incidents of fire inside a property, temperatures can rise so much that even steel begins to melt. As we’ve mentioned earlier, the function of a fire door or fire-resistant door is not to survive a fire but to slow down the spread and contain the damage as much as possible.
They Offer a Chance To Put Out the Fire Before It Spreads
In minor cases, the fire may be contained enough to be dealt with so that it does not spread. Fire doors not only save lives but also keep the rest of the property, along with the belongings therein, safe.
They Provide a Safe Exit If The Fire Gets Worse
In major cases, the fire doors will contain the fire until the occupants of the building or property have exited safely. In addition to containing the fire, a properly sealed fire door also keeps smoke contained so that people can exit with a lessened danger of getting disoriented or suffocated by smoke.
More so, because fire-rated doors can withstand fire and heat for a time, they serve as an available means of escape as long as they remain intact.
Does My Property Need a Fire-Rated Door?
In Canada, fire-rated doors are typically only required for buildings (both commercial or residential) and not for houses. This, however, does not mean that fire-rated doors are useless in a house.
Fire-Rated Doors for a House
Though not typically required, a fire-rated door can contain a fire in areas of the home that are prone to being a source of a house fire. Homeowners can opt to have a fire door for places like the kitchen, basement, or rooms where a number of electrical devices are kept.
Having fire-rated exterior doors is an added measure of safety to ensure that there will be exits intact in case of a house fire.
Fire-Rated Doors for a Building
Fire-rated doors are typically required for buildings that serve as public buildings, office spaces, apartments, dormitories, multi-family homes, and the like.
- Fire exits/building exits
- Corridor doors
- Laundry room doors
- Garbage room doors
Customized Doors For Your Needs
Whatever your door needs may be, Burano Doors is a manufacturer you can trust. If you are still wondering whether or not you need fire doors for your property and what options are out there for you, we’ll be more than happy to give our insights.